數據資料

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有關香港入境羈留的公開數據資料 極為缺乏。 但由於羈留涉及自由的剝奪,數據資料的缺乏著實 令人擔憂。.

過去的一年,本團隊廣泛地搜查多個來源,以收集香港入境羈留和弱勢移民的數據資料。努力的結果已分享到本網站,數據亦會定期更新。資訊均有列明參考來源。

本團隊篩選 數百個 資訊來源,整理和彙編數據,以使不同時期的數據可以進行比較,及確保數據的準確性。若數據出現不一致的情況,請通過 聯絡表格 與本團隊聯絡。日後本團隊亦會上載數據以供下載。

Last update: Sep 19, 2022

如果有意運用本網站的數據,請 參閱注意事項, 以確保使用的準確性。

目錄

Section 2: Detention conditions

  1. Strip searches conducted by ImmD
  2. Strip searches by location
  3. Complaints filed against Immigration Department in relation to immigration detention
  4. Complaints related to immigration detention by institution that received the complaint
  5. Total complaints filed against Immigration Department
  6. Physical confrontations at CIC by type
  7. Physical confrontations at CIC relative to yearly admissions
  8. Injuries from physical confrontations at CIC
  9. Detainees receiving disciplinary penalties as a result of involvement in physical confrontations at CIC
  10. Physical confrontations at MTKDC
  11. Emergency ambulances sent to immigration detention facilities (CIC, MTKDC, TTG)
  12. Justices of the Peace visits to CIC and MTKDC
  13. Complaints and requests made to JPS, suggestions made by JPs by category

前言:關於數據資料

在哪裡搜查數據?

由於關於香港入境羈留的數據資料甚少,本團隊需要搜查多個政府部門的數據來獲取資料。另外,因為這些數據有限,利用其他數據,比如監獄處所的數據,來進行比較分析的方法亦變得更格外相關。

本團隊已經參閱了數千頁的文獻報告,以及數百個資訊來源。它們包括但不限於以下的來源:

  • 入境處年報
  • 入境處網站有關執法的 數據資料
  • 懲教處網站的統計資料
  • 香港特區政府遞交聯合國機構的文件
  • 立法會新聞稿
  • 保安局對立法會財務委員會的回應
  • 香港政府「資料一線通」 網站
  • 政府統計處網站
  • 香港警務處網站
  • 索取資料的要求 (由他人提出)
  • 索取資料的要求(由本項目提出)
  • 等等

查找數據有何難處?

查找有關羈留人數的數據有難度,部份原因是因為羈留人士很可能分散於由不同部門管理的多個處所。

另一個難處就是不同時段的數據集不一定採用相同的量度準則,使得將各個數據集合併起來以涵蓋更長的時段的做法不可行。

量度與單位

在數據集裡所遇見的量度包括:

  • 每年羈留人數,
  • 每日平均羈留人數,及
  • 年底羈留人數摘要。

每年羈留人數可以闡明一個羈留設施人數流動的幅度,而每日平均羈留人數有助於了解羈留設施接近容量飽和的年份。然而,因為每日平均羈留人數一定不會超出設施的總容量,進行各個羈留設施之間更廣泛比較仍然有相當的限制。

第一節:入境羈留人口與人口統計數據

入境羈留人士被羈留在哪裡?

羈留設施包括入境處、懲教處等部門所管理的處所和其他處所。

事實上,《入境條例》規定,入境羈留人士可收押在任何一個警務、入境或監獄設施,以及任何邊境管制站。

入境處所管理的兩個主要羈留設施為青山灣入境事務中心(CIC)及馬頭角羈留中心(MTKDC)。自2021年年初起,第三個設施已經投入服務。前身為監獄的大潭峽懲教所(TTGI)已重新用作入境羈留設施。此懲教所由懲教處而非入境處管理,而那裡的羈留人士受《監獄規則》所規管。

How many people are detained yearly?

The number of detention cases may not equal the sum of yearly admittances into CIC and MTK because 1) one person can be admitted into more than one institution (ex. Admitted to MTK then transferred to CIC) and 2) there are detention facilities other than CIC and MTK. In this regard, the ‘number of detention cases’ is currently seen as the most relevant number in answering the question ‘How many people are detained for immigration purposes every year in Hong Kong?’.

How many people are admitted to CIC and MTKDC every year?

Usage note: Please note the measurement units used. For example, yearly admissions and average daily population cannot be combined across time periods as they are different measurement units.

How many persons are released from CIC every year?

Where are the detainees in CIC from?

This chart shows the most common nationalities of detainees in CIC on Dec 31 of the past three years, with less common nationalities in “Other”.

The following chart shows all nationalities in detail on Dec 31 for a larger time period. 

Usage note: “End of year” indicates the number of people on the last day of the year (ex. Dec 31, 2018). This means that the data shows the snapshot of the detainee population only on that day, and cannot be generalized to represent the whole year. 

How old are the detainees in CIC?

This data shows a snapshot of the age groups in CIC on Dec 31, and thus cannot be generalized to represent the whole year.

What is the gender of detainees at CIC?

Click on the items in the legend to filter out different categories.

This graph shows yearly admissions into CIC by gender. Data prior to 2020 is not maintained. The Immigration Department has stated that admissions data of transgender persons was not maintained.

Where are the detainees in MTKDC from?

This data shows a snapshot of the nationalities of detainees in MTKDC on Dec 31, and thus cannot be generalized to represent the whole year.

How old are the detainees in MTKDC?

This data shows a snapshot of the age groups in MTKDC on Dec 31, and thus cannot be generalized to represent the whole year.

What is the gender of detainees at MTKDC?

This data shows a snapshot of MTKDC on Dec 31, and thus cannot be generalized to represent the whole year.

This graph shows yearly admissions into MTKDC by gender. Data prior to 2020 is not maintained. The Immigration Department has stated that admissions data of transgender persons was not maintained.

How long are detainees held at CIC for?

These data points represent how long the detainee population at CIC has been held for at a given day, in this case, the last day of each month in a five-year period.

How long are detainees held at MTKDC for?

These data points represent how long the detainee population at MTKDC has been held for at a given day, in this case, the last day of each month in a five-year period.

Why are people held at CIC and MTKDC?

Grouped sections (CIC and MTKDC)

These data points represent the detainee population at CIC and MTK on a given day and the sections of the Immigration Ordinance (IO) that the people on that day were detained under. This dataset features the last day of each month in a three-year period.

Why are people held at CIC?

Grouped sections

These data points represent the detainee population at CIC on a given day and the sections of the Immigration Ordinance (IO) that the people on that day were detained under. This dataset features the last day of each month in a three-year period.

Why are people held at CIC?

Specific sections

These data points represent the detainee population at CIC on a given day and the specific sections of the Immigration Ordinance (IO) that the people on that day were detained under. This dataset features the last day of each month in a three-year period.

Why are people held at MTKDC?

Grouped sections

These data points represent the detainee population at MTKDC on a given day and the sections of the Immigration Ordinance (IO) that the people on that day were detained under. This dataset features the last day of each month in a three-year period.

Why are people held at MTKDC?

Specific sections

These data points represent the detainee population at MTKDC on a given day and the specific sections of the Immigration Ordinance (IO) that the people on that day were detained under. This dataset features the last day of each month in a three-year period.

Is there a recent snapshot of detainee demographic data?

These visualizations show demographic data of detainees who were at CIC on July 31, 2021. Click on the arrows to navigate to nationality, age, sex, and immigration status.

Who was detained at CIC in 2021?

These graphs show demographic data of detainees who were at CIC on the end of each month of 2021. Click on the arrows to navigate to nationality, age, sex, and immigration status.

Who was detained at CIC in the past five years?

These graphs show demographic data of detainees who were at CIC on the end of each month between 2017 and early 2022. Click on the arrows to navigate to nationality, age, sex, and immigration status.

How many people are detained at TTGCI?

Tai Tam Gap Correctional Institution (TTGCI) was reopened on 28 May 2021 as an immigration detention facility.

This data shows a snapshot of TTGCI on the last day of each month, and thus cannot be generalized to represent the whole year.

How many minors are held at TMCJH?

CIC and TTG are institutions that only hold adult detainees. Migrant children would be held at Tuen Mun Children and Juvenile Home, which holds both local and migrant children.

第二節:羈留狀況

Are detainees strip searched?

Where are detainees strip searched?

How many complaints are made by detainees every year?

Which institution are they made at?

How many complaints (in total) are filed against the Immigration Department?

What do we know about violence in detention? 

There is data on physical confrontations at the two main detention facilities managed by the ImmD. This graph shows data from CIC.

Is there a lot of violence?

This graph shows the number of physical confrontations at CIC compared to the number of admittances to CIC.

How many people are injured as a result? 

How many detainees receive penalties as a result?

What do we know about violence in MTKDC? 

How many emergency ambulances are sent to immigration detention facilities?

Click on the arrows to navigate between the visualizations.

How many Justices of the Peace visits were made to CIC and MTKDC?

Justices of the Peace (JPs) visit designated institutions and acts as a channel for people in prisons, detention facilities, and hospitals to express views and file complaints. JPs also make suggestions to improve institutional facilities and services.

What complaints, requests, and suggestions were made?

Complaints and requests made to JPs by category. Suggestions made by JPs by category.

第三節:入境處執法

What enforcement actions are conducted by the Immigration Department? 

Deportation vs Removal Deportation occurs when a person commits an offence and is banned from the territory for a fixed period of time or for life. Removal occurs to “restore the person to the place from whence [they] came” with there is no ban on return.

How many (non-ethnic-Chinese) persons are removed every year? 

This chart shows the number of non-ethnic Chinese (NEC) persons removed from Hong Kong every year, and is not limited only to non-refoulement claimants. NEC is a category defined by the government. 

How many persons are arrested for immigration offences? 

This graph indicates the number of persons arrested and not the number of persons prosecuted (ie. charged) nor convicted (ie. found guilty). Not all those arrested will necessarily be prosecuted, and not all those prosecuted will necessarily be convicted.

Of those arrested, how many have been convicted?

What are convictions? After a person is arrested, they may be prosecuted. If after trial they are found guilty, then they are convicted. In other words, arrested persons are not necessarily guilty, while convicted persons have been found guilty. 

第四節:難民/免遣返/統一審核機制(USM)申請

香港法律並不承認難民身份;儘管如此,難民可以申請 免遣返保護。獲得免遣返保護的難民可免於驅逐出境,亦可免於遣返後面臨的嚴重傷害或死亡風險。這亦即意味他們獲許暫留本港。

本港免遣返申請的處理程序稱為 「統一審核機制」。首階段申請由入境處處理。若申請被拒,申請人可以向酷刑聲請上訴委員會(TCAB)提出上訴。若申請再受酷刑聲請上訴委員會拒絕,申請人可以選擇提出司法覆核。若司法覆核成功,酷刑聲請上訴委員會必須重審案件。

How many non-refoulement claims are filed and determined every year?

“Claims made” are claims filed by non-refoulement applicants. “Claims determined” are claims where a decision was made on the claim (ie. approved / rejected). “Outstanding claims” refers to claims that are still being processed through the system.

Who is currently in the process of their USM claim?

Click on the arrows to see demographics of USM claimants (at Sept 2021) with outstanding (ie. pending) claims. Demographics include nationality, age, sex, and immigration status.

What are the nationalities of the substantiated claimants in the USM?

A substantiated non-refoulement claim is one that has been approved, which allows the claimant to remain in the territory.

An increasingly large proportion of USM claims are substantiated on appeal.

This suggests a high rejection rate of USM claims at the initial application stage to the government.

80% of applications to work by USM claimants have been approved.

Non-refoulement claimants whose claims have been approved are not automatically granted the right to work. In order to work, one would need to apply separately to the Immigration Department. The request for approval to work is not considered through a formal system but on a “case-by-case” and “exceptional basis“.

第五節:開支

How much is spent in relation to non-refoulement claimants? 

How much is spent on repatriating people?

These figures indicate expenditure involved with repatriation of persons, including but not limited to non-refoulement claimants.

How much does it cost to detain people at CIC? 

How much does it cost to detain people at MTKDC? 

How much does it cost to detain people at other control points managed by the Immigration Department? 

第六節:監獄/懲教處(CSD)

入境羈留人士亦可以收押於懲教處管理的設施;然而,被收押在這些設施內的人,相對於囚犯,當中有多少是入境羈留人士, 處方並無公開。.

此外,官方提供的入境羈留數據比起監獄的數據更少。在此情況下,將二者進行比較分析的工作顯得更為相關。

How many prisoners are held in Hong Kong’s prisons?

Approximately one third of prisoners are foreigners.

How many complaints are filed against the CSD? 

These include complaints filed by persons in custody, the public, and staff.

What types of complaints were investigated?

How many incidents of self-harm occur in prisons?

Unlike the CSD, the Immigration Department does not maintain similar statistics.

Section 7: Victims of trafficking

How many victims of trafficking have been identified by authorities?

This chart shows how many victims of trafficking were identified by either the Immigration Department or Hong Kong Police Force.

Are there foreign domestic workers who are victims of trafficking?

What is the gender of victims who were identified?

This data shows the total number of victims of trafficking identified by the government in the time period between 2016 and April of 2018.

Vocabulary List

Commonly Used Abbreviations

CIC – Castle Peak Bay Immigration Centre

CIU – Complaints Investigation Unit (of the Correctional Services Department)

CSD – Correctional Services Department

HKPF – Hong Kong Police Force

ImmD – Immigration Department

MTKDC – Ma Tau Kok Detention Centre

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